August 2013

August 2013

A heart rate that is measured when your body is in resting mode is called your normal or resting heart rate, or RHR. In general, pregnant women, children and babies have a higher RHR than other people. People who regularly train their hearts and lungs, to function well through exercise, tend to have a lower resting heart rate.

A healthy heart will beat relatively slowly, while pumping the necessary amount of blood to the rest of the body. Professional athletes and people who play sports often normally have healthy hearts and a resting heart rate that is slow. During exercise, the body calls for more oxygen and blood, which means the heart has to beat faster to ensure that blood is properly distributed throughout the body and adequate oxygen is supplied. When the heart beats fast during times when a person is not exercising, this could be a sign of a weak heart or lungs.

A low heart rate is known as bradycardia, and tachycardia is the term used to describe a rapid heart rate. Both of these conditions can be harmful for the body and heart. Most people are aware of their heart rate while they are exercising. However, working out with a high heart rate can cause damage to the body, increasing the risk of cardiac arrest and heart attack. The way to observe the maximum heart rate during exercise is to conduct a stress test on the treadmill in a physician’s office or with a trainer. Healthy individuals can use the following formula to determine their maximum heart rate, or MHR:

-for women, the MHR is 226 minus the age of the woman
-for men, the MHR is 220 minus the age of the man

People who have been diagnosed with certain illnesses or are taking specific medications should talk to their doctors about their MHR during exercise. Once patients are aware of their MHR, they can start working out with 50% of their MHR if they are just starting an exercise plan. The heart rate can be increased gradually as the heart becomes toned. A safe heart rate is between 50 and 60% of the MHR.

Since the maximum benefits of exercise are not accomplished when a person is working out with low intensity, more strength training and cardio may be added to increase the effects of the exercise session. Athletes and physically active individuals work with high intensity and can function with 85% of their MHR, or even a little more, as part of endurance or circuit training. However, for people who are not as active, this MHR percentage can be dangerous. People who are used to exercising can work with 60-75% MHR. Going above this can cause breathlessness and other serious health problems. Individual who lead a primarily sedentary lifestyle should exercise a little more caution when exercising.

Even when individuals are working within their target heart rate, it’s important to slow down if dizziness occurs. Exercise should be a challenge, but the challenge shouldn’t be so overwhelming that it leads to disorientation or a lightheaded feeling. It’s important for the heart rate to be raised gradually, so consulting with a doctor will give patients pointers on how to increase the heart rate healthily.

Percocet vs vicodin

​ Percocet and Vicodin come from the same family of medications. Prescribed for the treatment of mild to moderate pain, they are both narcotics. Vicodin is a Schedule III drug, while Percocet is Schedule II. This means that there are special regulations and laws regarding their usage as determined by the FDA. The composition of these two medications has one difference. Percocet is only intended for short term moderate to severe pain, while Vicodin often given to patients suffering from chronic pain or from a severe, chronic cough. These medications can only be purchased with a signed physician’s prescription because they are narcotic pain relievers and come with the chance of abuse or dependence.

​ Percocet is a combination of oxycodone hydrochloride and acetaminophen, a fever reducer and pain reliever. The first ingredient works as a pain killer and has been shown to help suppress coughing.

​ Vicodin, however, is composed of acetaminophen and hydrocodone bitartrate, also used to alleviate pain and reduce coughing.

Overdose

​ Liver damage and possible death are possible consequences of an overdose. Sweating, confusion, stomach pain, nausea, and vomiting are often symptoms of an overdose. If not treated, the skin and eyes may turn yellow, urine may darken, and pain in the upper stomach are later indications of overdose.

Emergency Room Effectiveness

​ A study conducted found that the effectiveness of Vicodin and Percocet are equal three minutes after it is taken. However, Vicodin increases the risk of constipation.
​ Percocet was determined to be 1.5 times more potent than Vicodin in another study when identical doses were given.

Side Effects

​ Percocet may result in mild nausea, constipation, drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, and blurred vision.

​Vicodin has increased risk of mood changes, headaches, and ringing in the ears in addition to the side effects listed above. Percocet, when taken in doses of 10mg or higher has a higher instance of subjective side effects (including increased rates of liking and a feeling ofbeing high) than Vicodin.

Warnings

​Warnings are essentially the same in both medications. Persons who consume large amounts of alcoholic beverages per day or those that have ever been diagnosed with alcoholic liver disease should only take these medications under a physician’s supervision. When taking these medications alcohol should not be consumed due to an increased possibility of liver disease. Breathing problems may be experienced and withdrawal or addiction symptoms in newborns. As a result, pregnant women should only take this medication under the supervision of a physician. Sleeping pills, other narcotics, and muscle relaxers should not be taken in conjunction with these medications.

Addiction

​Both Vicodin and Percocet have the ability to be addictive drugs as a result of their mood altering side effects. They should never be stopped abruptly by long term users due to the risk of withdrawal symptoms.

​ Due to having ingredients that are a derivative of Morphine, Percocet is deemed to be more addictive than Vicodin. However, there are studies that have indicated there is minimal difference in the potential for abuse when similar doses of Percocet and Vicodin are taken.

​ Beano works with the digestion of foods in the body because it contains an enzyme produced from a natural source. To prevent gas before it can even start, it turns complex carbohydrates into smaller, more easily digested sugars prior to reaching the colon. Let’s talk more about and the effect Beano has on it.

​ Certain enzymes are required for the body to digest and absorb many carbohydrates in the small intestine, but this cannot be done if the body has an absence or shortage of these enzymes. If the enzymes are not there, then the food continues, undigested, to the large intestine after leaving the small intestine resulting in bacteria breaking down the food and gas forming. Digestive discomfort, flatulence, and abdominal bloating are the most frequently seen symptoms of gas. Carbohydrates found in some foods such as seeds, vegetables, grains, beans, whole grain bread, nuts, and cereal cannot be broken down due to the body’s lack of enzymes. This is when Beano concentrates on working. An enzyme from a natural source is found in Beano that helps the body’s digestion breakdown complex carbohydrates, or sugars, in gassy foods. They are now simpler to digest averting gas from being produced.

​ Beano is a dietary supplement that is enzyme based – used to decrease the amount of gas in the digestive system, resulting in improved digestion and decreasing flatulence, bloating, and discomfort caused by gas. Alpha-galactosidase is the enzyme that is able to break down oligosaccharides including raffinose. First offered as a liquid, it was later discontinued and replaced with strawberry flavored “Meltaways” and tablets, which are currently the only two forms on the market.

Alan Kligerman with AkPharma continued research into gas causing vegetables that was started in 1981 and as a result, developed Beano in 1990. The concept had been around for centuries as evidenced by “A Letter to a Royal Academy”, an essay written by Benjamin Franklin in the 1780s which first proposed the idea for the product.

GlaxoSmithKline obtained its patent in 2001 after acquiring it from Block Drug. In a deal completed in 2012, Beano, along with sixteen other brands, was sold to Prestige Brands.

Beano Side Effects

​ Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea and cramping in addition to an allergic like reaction involving pruritus and a rash are the most commonly reported side effects to date. On very few occasions, serious allergic reactions have been reported.

Alpha-glucosidase does not appear to have any harmful effects on people in good health, but there is the potential for the development problems in patients with the rare condition, galactosemia, and diabetes. Complex carbohydrates are easily broken down into absorbed sugars by alpha-glucosidase which can result in increased blood sugar for diabetic patients. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, a medication that inhibits alpha-glucosidase, have been shown to benefit diabetic patients. However, there are studies that determined alpha-glucosidase supplements decrease the effectiveness of the diabetic medication Acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. As a result, diabetics who take alpha-glucosidase inhibitors should not take alpha-glucosidase supplements. Furthermore, it is possible that alpha-glucosidase could cause an increase in blood sugar in diabetic patients that are not prescribed alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, but this has not been completely proven. Sufferers of galactosemia, a genetic disease should never be given alphagalactosidase because it may contribute to worsening symptoms. It is has not been evaluated on pregnant or nursing women, individuals with severe liver or kidney disease, or children and safety has not been established, as a result in these groups.

The abdominal region is a complex section of the body comprised of several organs: the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, stomach, spleen and the small and large intestines. Pain in or around the belly button can be indicative of a problem with any one of these organs. The complexity of the region means that any pain around the belly button should result in a thorough medical examination to determine the cause of the pain.

There are several good medical tests that can help to determine the cause of any abdominal discomfort, especially around the navel area. An abdominal ultrasound is one measure, as is an in depth CT scan. With regards to the cause of pain around the navel, there are several causes, discussed below.

  • Appendicitis, which is inflammation of the appendix, is a condition which, as the name suggests, afflicts the appendix, a largely useless organ located between the small and large intestines. Despite its superfluity, any delay in the treatment of appendicitis can lead to serious problems.
  • Another inflammation of a stomach organ is cystitis, which affects the bladder. Symptoms include extreme pain around the pelvis, which is of course near to where the bladder is located. One may feel a burning sensation during urination, and blood may even be present in the urine. Again, urgent treatment is necessary to avoid a medical emergency.
  • Abdominal hernias are another possible cause of navel pain, and this particular ailment is caused when one of the abdominal organs decides to ‘escape’ through the wall of the abdomen. The pain associated with a hernia is sharp rather than dull, and it has several known causes: obesity, stressful exercise, heavy lifting. Even the sharp bodily movements associated with coughing and sneezing can cause a hernia!
  • Peptic ulcers can cause pain in the belly button, and they have a wide array of causes such as high alcohol and fatty food consumption. Infections caused by parasites such as the helicobacter pylori can also cause peptic ulcers. It is associated with pain behind the belly button, and its consequences include the following symptoms: feeling nauseated, stomach bloating, belching, a loss of appetite and subsequent weight loss and the presence of blood in the stool. Anyone suffering any of these symptoms should seek medical assistance immediately.
  • Naval pain is also associated with a diseased or infected gallbladder. If the passage of bile out of the gallbladder is obstructed in any way, then the gallbladder can become diseased or infected. Gallbladder stones can also form, causing extreme abdominal pain.

Most of us have suffered from a bout of constipation once or twice in our lives, but chronic constipation is indicative of a much greater problem. A poor diet can lead to constipation and indigestion, but chronic constipation has much more malign effects. The large intestine is the main victim of chronic constipation, as waste material passes slowly through it, sometimes too slowly, resulting in the waste solidifying before the bowel can evacuate.